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SNOMED CT Document Library


National translation guidelines developed by the SNOMED International member countries:

Documents consulted for the development of these guidelines

Cabré Castellvi, T. (1999). Terminology: Theory, Methods and Applications. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

COTSOES (2003). Recommendations for Terminology Work. Retrieved from

INFOTERM (2005). Guidelines for Terminology Policies. Paris: UNESCO.

International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (2012). A methodology and toolkit for evaluating SNOMED CT Translation Quality. Retrieved from 

ISO 1087-1 ((1969, 1990, 1998) 2000). Terminology work – Vocabulary – Part 1: Theory and application. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

ISO 704 ((1987, 2000) 2009). Terminology work – Principles and methods. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

Molina, L., & Albir, A.H. (2000). Translation Techniques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach. Meta, XLVII(4), 497-512.

Nuopponen, A. (2018). Terminological Concept Systems. In Languages for Special Purposes: An International Handbook (pp. 453-468). Berlin/Boston: Mouton De Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110228014-023

Odgen, C., & Richards, I. (1923/1989). The Meaning of Meaning: Study of the Influence of Language Upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism (8 ed.). Harvest/HBJ.

Pavel, S., & Nolet, D. (2001). Handbook of Terminology. Ottawa: Public Works and Government Services Canada.

Wüster, E. (1979/1985). Einführung in die Allgemeine Terminologielehre und Terminologische Lexikographie. Copenhagen Business School.

Further reading

Bodenreider, O., Smith, B., & Burgun, A. (2004). The Ontology-Epistemology Divide. A Case Study in Medical Terminology. In A. Varzi, & L. Vieu (Eds.), Proceedings of FOIS 2004, International Conference on Formal Ontology and Information Systems. Turin, 4-6 November 2004.

Cimino, J. (1998). Desiderata for controlled medical vocabularies in the twenty-first century. Methods Inf Med., 37(4-5), 394-403. Retrieved from PMID: 9865037; PMCID: PMC3415631

Madsen, B. (2004). Handbog i begrebsarbeidje Del 1 & 2 (Handbook of concept work). Sundhedsstyrelsen (National Board of Health). Copenhagen.

Madsen, B. (2015). Concept modeling vs. data modeling in practice. In F. Steurs & H. Kockaert (Eds.), Handbbook of Terminology (pp. 250-275). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Reynoso G.A., March A.D., Berra C.M., Strobietto R.T., Barani M., Lubatti M. et al. (2008.). Development of the Spanish Version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Methodology and Main Issues. Prc AMIA Symp, (pp. 694-8).

Spackman, K. A., Dionne R., Mays R., & Role J. ( 2002). Role grouping as an extension to the description logic of Ontology, motivated by concept modeling in SNOMED. Proc AMIA Symp., (pp. 712-6).

Spackman, K. A., & Reynoso G. (2004). Examining SNOMED from the perspective of formal ontological principles: Some preliminary analysis and observations. In U. Hahn (Ed.), Proceedings of the KR 2004 Workshop on Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation. (pp. 72-80). BC, Canada: Whistler.

Toft, B. H. (2004). Virksomhedsdatabaser – hvorfor og hvordan? En praktisk guide til terminologiarbejde (Industriel Databases – Why and How? A Practical Guide to Terminology Work). University of Southern Denmark.

Wermuth, M.-C., Walravens, M., & Lambot M.-A. (2022). Collaboration and communities of practice in the field of medical ontology translation. (P. Cadwell, F. Federici, & S. O’Brien, Eds.) The Journal of Specialised Translation (37), 75-98.