General demographic characteristics are important to record for each patient being investigated or treated for COVID-19. Relevant patient demographics, which can be recorded using SNOMED CT includes:

These data elements are described below, with example SNOMED CT subsets for each.

2.2.1 Sex and Gender

Multiple types of sex and/or gender are recorded in clinical practice, including biological sex and gender identity. 1 

SNOMED CT supports the distinction between biological sex (e.g.  248152002 |Female (finding)| ) and gender identity (e.g. 703118005 |Feminine gender (finding)| ), as shown in the two subset definitions below.


Intensional Definition:

365873007 |Gender finding (finding)|

2.2.2 Marital or Partnership Status 

The marital or partnership status of a patient describes their legal, civil or personal relationship with their significant other, for example 87915002 | Married (finding)|


2.2.3 Nationality 

Nationality refers to a particular legal relationship between an individual person and a sovereign state. The nationality of a patient may refer to the nation in which they were born, have citizenship, or have other legal ties - for example 223610001 | Jordan (geographic location)|  or 223625001 | New Zealand (geographic location)| .


Intensional Definition: 223369002 |Country (geographic location)|

2.2.4 Ethnic Group 

The ethnic group (or ethnicity) of a patient is the social or cultural group with whom they identify - for example, 33897005 |Chinese (ethnic group)|  or  735001008 |Scandinavian (ethnic group)| .

Intensional Definition:

372148003 |Ethnic group (ethnic group)|

2.2.5 Racial Group 

The racial group (or race) of a patient is the group (or groups) with whom they share inherited physical characteristics - for example,  414408004 |Hispanic (racial group)|  or  413773004 |Caucasian (racial group)| .

Intensional Definition:

415229000 |Racial group (racial group)|

2.2.6 Occupation 

Occupation is the patient's job or profession - for example,  158942005 | Residential child care worker (occupation)|  or  308223007 | Hairdresser (occupation)| .

Intensional Definition:

14679004 |Occupation (occupation)|

2.2.7 Travel History 

The travel history of a patient is a record of their past visits to locations both inside and outside their country of residence. This may include a list of the specific countries and/or regions that they have travelled to (e.g.  223498002 | Africa (geographic location)|  or  223585008 | South east Asian country (geographic location)|  ), or a descriptive travel history finding (e.g.  161090005 | Travel abroad for business (finding)| ).

2.2.8 Residential Location Type 

The residential location type is the type of place in which the patient is currently living, or was living prior to admission to hospital - for example, 257564005 | Apartment (environment)|  or  257670006 | Private house (environment)| .


2.2.9 Next of Kin Relationship 

The next of kin relationship is the relationship that the patient has with their closest living relative (as chosen by the patient) - for example 444053001 | Husband of subject (person)|  or 444301002 | Mother of subject (person)| .


2.2.10 Living Arrangements 

The living arrangements of the patient describes the familial and non-familial relationships of a person to all the other people with whom they usually reside - for example  105529008 | Lives alone (finding)|  or  224133007 | Lives with family (finding)| .


2.2.11 Care and Support Circumstances 

The care and support circumstances of the patient describe how and by whom they are looked after when living at their usual place of residence - for example  427454004 | Cared for by neighbors (finding)|  or 301887005 | Needs assistance at home (finding)| .



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