itself is only a part of the solution to addressing the requirements for effective electronic clinical records. A terminology on its own "does" nothing unless it is implemented as part of an application and used. Implementation of requires software applications that exploit its features to meet the real and perceived needs of users.
The "users" of include:
As illustrated by , users experience through application software which delivers services to access and apply . The ways in which applications apply the features of to address user requirements determine the extent to which the potential benefits are realized .
The following sections summarize some of the types of implementation that may be needed to meet different requirements. Some types of application do not need to support or use all features. However, there are some overarching requirements for consistency between implementation used within a given organization, country or region. Even where requirements are limited, care should be taken to ensure that are aligned with good practice and with agreed policies applicable to the situations in which they are used.
Relationship between users application software and SNOMED CT
A enabled clinical record application uses to represent clinical information in the records of individual patients.
Clinical record applications include specialized departmental systems, organization -wide systems and systems that integrate multiple systems to deliver a distributed or a collection of widely accessible summary records.
A enabled clinical record application needs to provide including entry, storage, retrieval and communication of . These depend on including the ability to search for and to interpret stored .
A wide range of types of information can be represented at different levels of detail using . The types of information and level of detail that are used may vary depending on user requirement or may be limited by the design of the application. Differences in the required level of expressivity influence the range of that need to be supported.
The way that are represented within a record structure affects the range of services that are required to deliver the potential benefits of implementation. The value of the rich expressivity of may be enhanced or diminished by the way the record structure relates to surrounding contextual information. For example, if a record structure permits similar or related information to be recorded in several ways a query to retrieve that information will need to consider all these possibilities. Retrieval is simpler if similar information is recorded in a consistent way - irrespective of the way it was entered. This issues are discussed in detail in the Record Services Guide .
A enabled knowledge representation uses to represent or tag resources that represent clinical knowledge. Examples of resources that can be enabled include electronic reference books, clinical guidelines, care pathways, decision support protocols and requirements for analysis and audit.
There are various ways in which can be used in a knowledge resource. These can be divided into two broad categories:
There are two distinct but interrelated aspects to knowledge representation.
enabled aggregation and analysis systems use to enable effective aggregation and analysis of information derived from clinical record systems.
enables consistent processable representation of clinical information. As well as presenting opportunities for analysis of information within an individual clinical record system, this can be used to support analysis of a broader substrate of aggregated data.
There are two types of approach that be employed to enable analysis of aggregate data.
In practice, there is significant overlap between these two approaches. A data warehouse approach can benefit from a common approach to specifying the information extraction requirements. This allows changes to the specification without re-engineering the contributing clinical record systems. A common specification approach requires a central element to manage distribution of queries and aggregation of results.
Irrespective of the approach taken, enabled aggregation and analysis is most effective where the representation of information in the contributing clinical record systems is consistent with a common view. However, it is possible to aggregate information from diverse systems if the limits imposed by differences are understood. It is even possible for a aggregation and analysis system to be applied information that was not originally encoded using . An extraction and aggregation interface that includes mapping from another coding system may produce information of adequate quality and consistency for many purposes. Data derived by tagging textual records using may also meet requirements that are not safety-critical.
enabled terminology tools provide access to content. On their own they are not practical end-user implementations but they enable the development and review of . They may also deliver services that can be used by end-user implementations.
A enabled allows the content and structure of to be explored and reviewed.
A typical enabled can locate and by and by searching the text of . Various views of located may be displayed including the set of related , the hierarchical and other defining .
A terminology may be:
A is a software application that provides programmatic access to . These services are made available through a documented ( ) which can be used by many different client applications.
A must be able to import SNOMED CT release files and provide some or all of the services described in the Terminology Services Guide. All must support a basic minimum set of functions including Foundation Terminology Services and access to Reference sets and other metadata .
A may provide services, such as a set of screen controls to support term selection. Alternatively, while the should support searches, the representation of the results of a search may be left to client applications. Where controls are provided by the server, these controls may also be packaged in an integrated form as a .
A may also provide services that support the use of other terminologies. In this case, it may conform to a standard specification such as ( ).
development and maintenance requires tools which are able to create and update content.
Development and maintenance tools may either be general purpose or may focus on specific requirements (e.g. to support , or development of ).
The process of maintenance needs to track changes and manage conflicts between edits made by different authors. In the case of content development, the tools must also ensure that definitions conform to the . At regular intervals the tools need to generate a consistent set of quality assured .
The is a set of software tools designed to support the development, maintenance, and use of . Its key role is to facilitate the maintenance of the and the National developed by . However, the future scope of use may extend to other organizations and to health information systems around the world. The is owned by the and is available under an Open Source license agreement.