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Caption label
Direct and indirect substrates for SNOMED CT based analytics

Analytics Substrate



Information Model

Unstructured free text document


Dictated clinical letter

Natural language


None or informal headings


Typed discharge summary letter

Structured documents with free text fields


Assessment form

Natural language


Standardized headings and fields


Discharge summary form

Structured documents with free text and post-coded classification (i.e. added by clinical coders after the clinical event

Discharge summary form with post-coded classification

Classifications (e.g. ICD)

Formal information model (typically simple)

Structured documents with non-SNOMED CT coding (e.g. proprietary, local or other coding system)



Standalone clinical application using departmental codes

Local code system, controlled vocabulary or legacy clinical terminology



Formal information model



Enterprise-wide healthcare system using local dictionaries and pick-lists

Electronic patient record using regional coding system (such as UK Primary Care systems)

Structured documents with SNOMED CT content


Cardiology report



Formal information model


GP event summary

'Big data' data store


Data warehouse

Various coding systems


Mixture of both structured and unstructured data


Data store containing a mixture of substrates