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Any two URIs from the,, and URI spaces identify the same thing if, after syntax-based normalisation as described in section 6.2.2 of IETF RFC3986 Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax1 , they are equal when treated as character strings. The syntax-based normalisation includes case normalization, percent-encoding normalization, and removal of dot-segments. Scheme-based and protocol-based normalisation should not be required since any URIs that would be affected by them (e.g., by including explicit port numbers or trailing slashes) fall outside of the URI space defined by the standard.

Ref Notes
1 Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax