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An inferred view of a concept definition may contain relationships to all supertype ancestors that are primitive concepts (shaded green in examples  Table 8.3.5-0).

The rationale for this is that all the distinguishing features of the defined concepts (white unshaded in examples) are represented by other defining relationships which will show up in the attribute part of the view.

This view can be used when testing whether a candidate concept is subsumed by a predicate expression. If the proximal primitive supertype view of the predicate expression includes any concept that is not in the comprehensive primitive view of the candidate concept definition, then the concept is not subsumed by the expression.

Figure 8.3.5-1: Example hierarchy containing defined and primitive concepts

Table 8.3.5-1: Primitive Supertypes in the Example Hierarchy


Primitive supertypes of these concept

C, D, E, F

A, B

H, J, N

A, G


A, G, K

L, M

A, G, I


A, G, I, K


  1. In this view the definitions of primitive concepts should implicitly or explicitly include a reference to the defined concept itself. This is because a primitive concept expresses some meaning that is not fully distinguished from its supertypes by other defining relationships. The reference to self need not be explicitly stored and provided that it is included implicitly at run time.
  2. See also 8.3.6 Proximal primitive supertypes.